October 12, Daily science and technology trend

  • 2020-10-12
  • 20

1. A consortium of scientific institutes led by the Koltsov Institute of Developmental Biology of the Russian Academy of Sciences will develop early diagnostics of neurodegenerative diseases(NDD) long before the onset of characteristic symptoms. Peripheral manifestations of the disease-changes in cerebrospinal fluid and blood-which are readily available for analysis, will be used as biomarkers. Diagnosing diseases shortly after the onset of neurodegeneration will allow the creation of a therapy that slows down the death of neurons at an early stage of the disease and, thus, prolongs the period of physical and social activity of patients.



2. From a joint development of scientists from the Institute of Chemical Biology and Fundamental Medicine of the SB RAS and the Institute of Biophysics of the SB RAS, the diagnostic molecule, an aptamer was developed. In their experiments, the scientists used hemoglobin as a model target molecule. The aptamer they created detected the presence of protein even in concentrations hundreds of thousands of times lower than in human blood.



3. A team of young materials scientists from the NUST MISIS Center for Composite Materials used agricultural waste to make three different types of silicate bioceramics-diopside, wollastonite and forsterite. Materials differ in the presence of different chemical elements. It was shown that the chemical constituents of the feedstock and dissolution in the physiological environment play a key role in the formation of the biological activity of the material. It is on the bioactivity of the material that the success of operations in implantology depends.



4. Perm scientists used a neural network to create a sensor, which was trained on a real combustion chamber. The developers have created a three-layer network with 32 neurons, which predicts the amount of harmful emissions. It predicts the amount of nitric oxide emitted from an aircraft engine. An automatic control system with an integrated sensor controls the engine based on fuel consumption



5. At the Research Center ‘Physical Materials Science and Composite Materials’ in Tomsk Polytechnic University biocompatible materials and coatings for implants and scaffolds are created that would replace lost bones or accelerate their fusion where possible. They are also working on a completely new idea-electronic skin (e-skin), which will monitor the patient's vital signs and, if necessary, signal their changes.



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